December 1918

Quarantines and regulations, being lifted, being reinstated, being imposed occur throughout the month, in all corners of the country and across the globe (December 7, 9. 14, 16, 19, 24, 25). In Seattle fifteen workers are employed putting quarantine signs on private residences (December 7). In Oklahoma city, OK the health officer issues “10 flu commandments,” number one is to use a handkerchief (December 9), in Chickasha, OK houses are also placarded and no one living there can attend church or school (December 24). In Topeka, KS plans for restrictions to address the third wave allow shops to open, and are endorsed by the chamber of commerce (December 16). In Grand Marais, MN an infant and a nineteen year old Chipewa are dead from pneumonia (December 4).

The reckoning has begun for the war (December 8, 22, 27, 31) The cost of the to the US Treasury is estimated at $25B, the federal domestic budget is $6B (December 31). Woodrow Wilson call for an “organized moral force” to ensure the peace (December 22). The use of chemical weapons is debated as soldiers return badly wounded (December 8) and the Washington, DC Humane Society calls for man end to chemical weapon experiments on animals (December 1). The German war dead is estimated at 6 million (December 27). The war has left 400,000 Armenian and Syrina children orphaned (December 27). One million men have been demobilized since the end of the war (December 29), and the return of prominent fighters is reported - Ty Cobb, who served in the chemical corps (December 28) Johnny Evers from the Chicago Cubs (December 28)

The influenza is also subject to review (December 1, 2, 5, 17, 19, 22, 30). A Carlsbad, NM newspaper argues that the influenza underscores the need for a state health department, as do the 2000 preventable infant deaths in the state (December 2). holiday crowds are blamed for a new blooming of cases in the District of Columbia (December 30). The Washington Times reports that twice as many Americans have died from influenza than in the war, and that the biggest threat is the American tendency to forget (December 17). In Liberal, KS a new two-week quarantine is declared as another wave occurs (December 19). Pulmonary tuberculosis cases are increasing in Spain the UK and the US as a result of the influenza (December 5). The American Public Health Association focuses on the lessons from the influenza epidemic (December 1), and Dr Woodward (in Boston since August 1918 and former DC health officer) gives a report to a New York physicians meeting (December 22).

The Irish parliament is established in Dublin (December 29).

Strikes in the United States and Germany are regularly reported (December 3, 6, 9, 12, 22). The Spartacus movement in Berlin is confronted by troops (December 9) and Premier Ebert has Prussian Guards raid their offices (December 12). American Federation of Labor leader Thornton warns that workers will not accept post-war wage cuts (December 6). Striking Toronto police return to work (December 22),

The influenza outbreak continues into the new year before finally killing as many as 100 million worldwide before its end in 1919.