August 1918

The influenza outbreak in Europe is affecting the conduct and perception of the war (August 2,3,4,7,8,17,21,22). The English coalmining (August 2) and shipbuilding (August 8) productivity is down due to massive absenteeism. Dublin and Belfast are experiencing a widespread outbreak (August 7).

German children are dying from malnourishment (August 2). Belgium is experiencing high death rates due to the lack of food (August 7) and the Swiss government reports that the famine in Germany is adding to the spread of Spanish Influenza (August 22). The information from Switzerland is provided by a Committee on Public information delegate in Zurich. Americans are encouraged to forgo wheat to ensure the troops are fed (August 21), and to Save Food to feed 120 million civilians in Europe (August 9, 17). US and English food production has increased despite labor shortages (August 3, 17, 28).

The influenza outbreak is acknowledged in New York City (August 11). The city is at the epicenter of communications and its physicians, their advice and the progression of the outbreak dominate national news (August 11, 20, 21, 22, 23, 26, 30). The former NYC commissioner Goldwater calls for a federal response to the epidemic, due to 50% of physicians being deployed to serve the war effort (August 11). A Norwegian passenger ship is the focus of health authorities in Brooklyn (August 14, 15, 21) as many as a dozen passengers are quarantined for flu symptoms. New Yorkers are reported to be unconcerned because they have been pre-warned about the influenza (August 26), current commissioner Copeland describes the outbreak as mild (August 30).

Baseball players are given until September 1 to find essential employment (August 3). The order is later relaxed to after thei season is finished. Attendance at games is well off normal (August 21). By the end of the month the Cubs and Red Sox are winning their divisions and set for the World Series (August 30).

The Army confirms its racial policies for healthcare provision, and that African American nurses will be recruited to treat the African American soldiers at Camp Funston (August 10). The National Medical Associaiton of African American doctors meets at Virginia Union, there are no papers or discussion on influenza, although there are many on general diseases in the camps (August 31).